"WR6_gUnUj-ztiW07KQcOCnTel9A"/> Notes From Atlanta: March 2013

Sunday, March 31, 2013

More Words Nigerians Commonly Mispronounce

By Farooq A. Kperogi, Ph.D.

I was frankly taken a little aback by the enormous overflow of enthusiasm with which my series on Nigerian English mispronunciations was received. Although I wrote the series in response to several requests from my readers, I didn’t expect many people to find it interesting or worthwhile. Many readers said my use of unconventional phonetic spellings made the series particularly helpful. 
I have way more words on my list of common words Nigerians mispronounce than I am inclined to write here. Maybe I should consider writing a layman’s Dictionary of Nigerian English Pronunciation since I am not a trained phonologist. 

In today’s edition, I conclude with bonus words and suggestions from my readers. The suggestions readers sent to me were many. I cannot capture all of them here.

1. Annihilate. This word is popularly pronounced “ani-hi-leyt” in Nigerian English. Native speakers pronounce it “anai-ileyt.” Note that the “h” is silent.

2. Adjacent: Almost everyone I know in Nigeria pronounces this word like “aja-sent.” Native speakers pronounce it “ajey-sent.”

3. Bouquet. This French loanword is pronounced either like “bow-kei” or “biu-kei,” but many Nigerians pronounce it “bu-kwet.”

4. Excited. The mispronunciation of this word as “eg-zai-ted” isn’t a national trend. It appears to be restricted to southwestern Nigeria, but I have heard several people outside the region say “eg-zai-ted” instead of “ik-sai-tid.”

5. February. A reader asked me to include this word, but I initially hesitated because the word has different acceptable native-speaker pronunciations. Then it occurred to me that a broad swath of Nigerians pronounce it in ways that are different from the various variants in native-speaker pronunciations. Nigerians tend to pronounce this word as “fe-bwa-ri.” There are two dominant native-speaker pronunciations of this word. One is “fe-bru-ari,” which appears to be the most socially favored in Britain and northern United States. In the American south I hear people say “fe-biu-ari.” They, too, kind of "swallow" the "r."
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Downloaded from a Facebook friend's timeline. My apologies if anyone finds it offensive. It's intended to be self-deprecating humor. I'm guilty of  :misarticulating" many of these words, too, if that's any comfort.

6. Fork. Nigerians used to pronounce this word like native British English speakers do, that is, they used to pronounce it “fo:k”— with a long “o” sound. But I hear that teachers in primary and secondary schools in Nigeria now teach students to pronounce it “fe:k.” Well, no one pronounces “fork” that way anywhere in the world. Pronouncing fork “fek” makes you sound like a mentally subnormal idiot with speech impediments.

6. Garage. Nigerians universally pronounce this word as “ga-reyj,” but it is pronounced “ga-raaj” or ga-raazh” by native speakers. 

7. Itinerary. Many Nigerians “swallow” the middle consonants in the word to produce something like “ai-ti-nari.” Native speakers articulate all the consonants in the word to have something like “ai-ti-nu-rari.”

8. Nigeria. It is perhaps the biggest irony of our “nationhood” that almost no Nigerian pronounces the name of our country “correctly.” Last year, I’d planned to write an article on the imperative to change Nigeria’s name to something other than Nigeria, and part of the argument I wanted to advance was that the name “Nigeria” is so foreign to us that almost no Nigerian pronounces it correctly. One of my readers brought this to my attention again three weeks ago. He pointed out that even President Goodluck Jonathan doesn't pronounce Nigeria correctly. Well, there are regional and ethnic variations in the way "Nigeria" is pronounced in Nigeria. While Hausa people pronounce Nigeria “naa-je-riya,” the rest of the country pronounces it like “nan-ji-ria.” Many language groups in southern and central Nigeria that don’t have the “j” sound in their languages either pronounce it “nan-ye-ria” or “nan-ge-ria.” The British people who imposed the name on us pronounce it “nai-jee-ree-a.” So do Americans and other native English speakers.

9. Pariah. This word, which came to the English language by way of India, entered the active idiolect of Nigerians during the late General Sani Abacha’s regime after the print media ceaselessly described Nigeria as a “pariah nation.” But it seems like nobody bothered to find out how the word is “properly” pronounced. So most of us pronounced it like “pa-riya.” But native speakers pronounce it something like “pa-rai-a.”

10. Pizza. I never ate pizza when I grew up in Nigeria. I had no idea what it was and I had no clue how it was pronounced. Nor did I care. But gastronomic globalization (as I’ve chosen to call the internationalization of otherwise provincial foods) is causing pizza to become a culinary alternative in Nigeria. The problem is, many Nigerians—at least those I related with in my recent trip to Nigeria—pronounce this (Americanized) Italian dish in ways that make it sound almost unrecognizable to the people who eat it. Nigerians pronounce it “pi-za.” I heard a young girl at a high-end Abuja restaurant pronounce it “pisa.” It almost sounded like “pisser,” that is, a person who urinates! Well, the people to whom the food is original pronounce it “peet- sa.”

11. Rendezvous. Many readers asked me to highlight this word. I personally don’t think Nigerians mispronounce it in any particularly egregious manner. I hear Nigerians pronounce it like “ren-dey-voo,” and native-speakers pronounce it “ron-dey-voo” or “ron-di-voo.” That’s not a big difference. I included the word in spite of my dubiety about its being a victim of mispronunciation in Nigeria because more than 10 people asked me to. Perhaps some people sound out every letter in the word—like “ren-dez-vus.”

12. Sotto voce. This Latin loanword for “in a low voice” is properly pronounced “so-tow-vow-chee.” But I’ve heard Nigerians pronounce it like “soto-vos.”

Other words that readers suggested are chef (which is properly pronounced “shef”),  cognac (which is properly pronounced “kown-yak”), yacht (which is properly pronounced “yot”),  chalet, (which is correctly pronounced “sha-ley”), jeopardy (which is correctly pronounced “jepa(r)di”), leopard (which is correctly pronounced “le-pa(r)d”), subtle (which is correctly pronounced “sot(u)l”), and sachet (correctly pronounced “sa-shey”).

I will update this blog with more words as they occur to me--or as my readers suggest.

Concluding Thoughts
All pronunciation, especially English pronunciation, is far from uniform. Even within native-speaker climes there exists a wide variation in the way words are pronounced. In my series, I held up the culturally privileged variants that are taught in schools, used in polite company, and in the broadcast media to illustrate the “deviations” of Nigerian English pronunciation. But why is Nigerian English pronunciation diverging more and more from native-speaker pronunciations? I answered that question in an April 29, 2010 article titled “Politics of English Pronunciation.” This was what I wrote:

“I will put it down to mother-tongue ‘interference’ and insufficient (or, in some cases, lack of) exposure to socially acceptable native-speaker pronunciation of particularly difficult (i.e., by non-native standards) aphonetic English words like yacht (pronounced /yot/ in native-speaker linguistic environments but pronounced /yach/ in Nigeria), etc.

 “In the absence of exposure to the socially accepted ways of pronouncing words in native-speaker climes, Nigerians generally pronounce the words as they are spelled, what grammarians call ‘spelling pronunciation.’ (The opposite of spelling pronunciation is ‘traditional pronunciation’).

“Spelling pronunciation, however, isn't restricted to second-language speakers like Nigerians and Indians. It also occurs in native-speaker linguistic markets, to use Pierre Bourdieu’s terminology. For instance, the ‘h’ sound in the word ‘host’ was once silent, as it still is in words like ‘hour,’ ‘honor,’ etc. But through ‘spelling pronunciation’ in Britain and America the ‘h’ is now articulated.

“Similarly, the ‘th’ in the word ‘author’ was traditionally pronounced with a ‘t’ sound but is now pronounced like the first sound in ‘thanks.’ Other examples of ‘spelling pronunciations’ that have been normalized or that co-exist with ‘traditional pronunciations’ in native-speaker English environments are ‘forehead’ (which used to be traditionally pronounced ‘forrid’ but is now pronounced ‘fohed’ in the UK and ‘forhed’ in the US), ‘schedule’ (where the ‘sch’ now rhymes with the first sound of ‘care,’ especially in American English, but is traditionally pronounced like ‘sh’), ‘often,’ (where the ‘t’ sound is traditionally silent but is now articulated), ‘appreciate’ (where the ‘c’ is traditionally pronounced ‘sh’ but is now sometimes pronounced ‘s’), etc.”

My advice for people who want to learn the correct pronunciation of words is that they should make it a habit to check the phonetic spellings of words in good dictionaries. Most people aren’t aware that dictionaries, in addition to telling us the meaning and usage of words, also teach us how to pronounce words.

Related Articles:
1. A Comparison of Nigerian, American and British English
2. Why is "Sentiment" Such a Bad Word in Nigeria?
3. Ambassador Aminchi's Impossible Grammatical Logic
4. 10 Most Annoying Nigerian Media English Expressions
5. Sambawa and "Peasant Attitude to Governance"
6. Adverbial and Adjectival Abuse in Nigerian English
7. In Defense of "Flashing" and Other Nigerianisms
8. Weird Words We're Wedded to in Nigerian English
9. American English or British English?
10. Hypercorrection in Nigerian English
11. Nigerianisms, Americanisms, Briticisms and Communication Breakdown
12. Top 10 Irritating Errors in American English
13. Nigerian Editors Killing Macebuh Twice with Bad Grammar
14. On "Metaphors" and "Puns" in Nigerian English
15. Common Errors of Pluralization in Nigerian English
16. Q & A About Common Grammatical Problems
17. Semantic Change and the Politics of English Pronunciation
55. The Arabic Origins of Common Yoruba Words
56. Idioms, Mistranslation, and Abati's Double Standards 
57. Native English Speakers' Struggles with Grammar 
58. Q and A on Nigerian English and Usage Rules
59. Of Yoruba, Arabic, and Origins of Nigerian Languages
60. Language Families in Nigeria
61. Are There Native English Speakers in Nigeria? 
62. The English Nigerian Children Speak (I)
63. The English Nigerian Children Speak (II)
64. Reader Comments and My Responses to "The English Nigerian Children Speak" 
65. Q and A on American English Grammar and General Usage
66. Q and A on Prepositions and Nigerian Media English 
67. Americanisms Popularized by American Presidential Politics (I) 
67. Americanisms Popularized by American Presidential Politics (II)
68. Top 10 Peculiar Salutations in Nigerian English (I)
69. Top 10 Peculiar Salutations in Nigerian English (II)
70. Q and A on English Salutation, Punctuation and Other Usage Problems
71. More Q and A on a Variety of Grammar Usage Issues 
72. Top 10 Outdated and/or Made-up Words in Nigerian English 
73. Q and A on Outdated Nigerian English Words and Expressions  
74. 20 Obsolete English Words that Should Make a Comeback
75. Q and A About Jargon and Confusing Expressions
76. President Goodluck Jonathan's Grammatical Boo-boos
77. How Political Elite Influence English Grammar and Vocabulary 
78. Use and Misuse of "Penultimate" in Nigerian and Native English 
79. Top 50 Words Nigerians Commonly Mispronounce  I
80. Top 50 Words Nigerians Commonly Mispronounce II 
81. Top 50 Words Nigerians Commonly Mispronounce III 

Saturday, March 30, 2013

CBN Governor Sanusi Lamido Sanusi’s Fake Facebook Account

By Farooq A. Kperogi, Ph.D.

A new, pernicious Nigerian 419 scam is taking root on Facebook, and Central Bank of Nigeria governor Sanusi Lamido Sanusi and scores of credulous Nigerians are its latest victims.

In the last couple of months, it has become fashionable for 419 scam artists to create fake Facebook profiles of prominent Nigerians and then send friend requests to multitudes of Nigerians on Facebook (who often feel flattered to be considered worthy of such “big” people’s friendship). The fake profiles update their statuses frequently and fill their “timelimes” with genuine photos of the people they impersonate. (The photos are easily obtainable from Google image search). 

After sprinkling a veneer of credibility on their profiles with photos and status updates (which often attract scores of likes, shares, and comments from naïve Nigerians) they send private messages to carefully chosen victims with all kinds of fraudulent propositions.

The propositions range from offering jobs to unemployed youth for a steep fee, to offering contracts to people who appear to be well-off (of course, for a huge “kickback,” too). I don’t know how many people have fallen victim to these scammers, but given the legendary gullibility of Nigerians (which is kind of ironic for citizens of a country that has earned notoriety as the scam capital of the world) my sense is that thousands of Nigerians have been fleeced—and will continue to be fleeced if nothing is done to stop this scam.

When, some months back, “Sanusi Lamido Sanusi” sent me a friend request on Facebook, I instantly knew it had to be some debauched 419 scammer hiding behind a cyber mask. A few weeks before the request, I had written a blistering critique of the CBN governor’s ill-advised plan to convert some naira bills into coins and to introduce higher denominations into the economy. Well, the man probably never even read my column, but since I have never related with him one-on-one I didn’t expect him to send me a friend request. In any case, as the “Oga at the top,” I should be the one sending him a friend request. I accepted the request, nonetheless. I did so because I wanted to study the profile and use it as a case study of the new 419 on Facebook.


Similar fake “Sanusi Lamido Sanusi” Facebook profiles had appeared and disappeared (one of which was a member of the fanclub that readers of my columns created for me), but this latest one is far and away the most audacious. At the time of writing this article, it had 4,977friends, 1,754 followers, and over a dozen genuine photos of the CBN governor. The scammer behind the profile religiously monitors the real Sanusi’s media engagements and writes status updates to reflect this. This works to redound to the profile’s credibility.

 But the status updates often lack the elevated diction, verbal exuberance, and intellectually fashionable phraseology of Sanusi’s prose. But they have all the stylistic imprints of 419 scam emails: they are usually riddled with cringe-worthy grammatical errors, make boastful claims to authority, lack sufficient attention to social and cultural cues, etc. On occasions, when the fake Sanusi profile attempts to appeal to Muslim and Hausa friends, it mixes up several linguistic, social, and cultural codes. For instance, the profile once wished friends “barika dey sallah.” No native Hausa speaker will ever write that. Ever.

The latest status update that fired up Nigerian social media circles this week was the one in which Sanusi purportedly railed against profligacy in the National Assembly and pledged that he would not seek a second term as CBN governor. It went thus:

 “Has [sic] the Governor of the CBN, i [sic] am only entitled to N25,000 per night for my local trips and our Senators and House of Reps Members are entitled to N500,000 per night for their local trips, I asked for the cutting down of their salaries and they all went against my policy. My tenure expire [sic] in June 2014 and i [sic] want all Nigerians [sic] home and abroad to put all hands on deck to bring in someone that will surpass me and be able to take the financial matters of our great nation to the next step. 

“Nigeria is not a country where one man can do it all, it is a collective effort and i [sic] use this medium to call on our youth from all works [sic] (O.P.C, NIGER-DELTA, THE BAKASSI BOYS, THE NORTHERN'S [sic]) To stand up and embrace the emancipation [sic]. Long live the Federal Republic Of Nigeria.” 

This error-ridden update got hundreds of likes, comments, and shares. But what got me particularly nonplussed was that many otherwise intelligent and thoughtful people believed that the status update, in spite of its many embarrassing errors, came from Sanusi, arguably the smartest and most articulate bureaucrat to ever walk the corridors of power in Nigeria.

As someone who has studied the logic and psychology of cybercrime, I can guess what happened. The sentiments encapsulated in the status update resonated with lots of Nigerians and, because of this, they chose to suspend their incredulity and become willing victims in their own fleecing. Before people fall victim to a fraudulent act on the Internet, they must first succumb to the temptation— called the false consensus effect— that other people share their sense of trust and sincerity. On the basis of this false logic, they give their consent to being swindled. This process is called peripheral route processing of persuasion.

Some people justified believing the error-ridden status update by saying it was probably Sanusi’s incompetent assistant who wrote it on his behalf. Others spruced up the grammar of the status update before sharing it. It’s amazing the extent people go to nurture and perpetrate the illusions that they cherish. 

I am glad that the CBN’s corporate affairs unit has now officially disowned the profile. But they need to go a step further and set up genuine social media accounts for the CBN governor. Cyberia (my coinage for cyber Nigeria) abhors a vacuum.

If you've been a victim of this fraudster, please share your experience in the comments section below. Thanks.

Related Articles:

Sunday, March 24, 2013

Top 50 Words Nigerians Commonly Mispronounce (III)

By Farooq A. Kperogi, Ph.D.

For the first part of this series click here

For the second part, click here.


25. Fatal. The great majority of Nigerians pronounce this word just the way it’s written: “fa-tal.” I had thought that our pronunciation is close to the preferred British pronunciation, but I found out that both British and American speakers pronounce the word as “fey-tl.” The “a” sound between the “t” and the “l” in the word is never articulated. The “ey” sound is also preferred in the word’s other derivatives such as fatalism (“fey-ta-li-zm”), fatalistic (“fey-ta-listik”), and fatalist (fey-ta-list). Nevertheless, for fatality both “fey-ta-liti” and “fa-ta-liti” are socially favored in British and American pronunciations.

26. Fuel. While Nigerians pronounce this word like “fu-el,” native English speakers pronounce it something like “fyool.” A related one is “oil” which Nigerians, especially southern Nigerians, tend to pronounce like “o-yel” or “o-yil” but which native speakers pronounce as “oyl.”

27. Gear. Like most Nigerians, I used to pronounce this word as “jia” until I came to America. Native speakers pronounce it something like “gia(r).” The first “g” in the word has the same sound as the “g” in “girl.” This is also true of the verb form of the word: geared. It’s pronounced “giard.”

28. Google. I have no clue why Nigerians, especially young Nigerians, pronounce this word as “go-gu.” The “go” in the popular Nigerian pronunciation of “Google” usually sounds like the “go” in “God.” But that’s the pronunciation of “goggle,” which means to look at somebody or something stupidly—like villagers do when they come to the city for the first time. The proper way to pronounce Google is “guu-gul.” That shouldn’t be hard to figure out because any word that has two “o’s” usually requires us to have a long “u” sound when we pronounce it. Examples: cook, book, look, crook.

29. Gigantic. Both American and British English speakers pronounce this word like “jai-gan-tik,” but Nigerians pronounce it like “jai-jan-tic.” Note that native speakers sound the middle “g” like you would the “g” in “goat.”

30. Gnash/gnarl/gnostic. The “g” in these words is silent. So the words are pronounced “nash,” “na(r)l,” and “nostik.” Many Nigerians tend to sound out the “g’s” in the words.

31. Hoarse. Nigerians pronounce this word like “ho-as,” but native speakers pronounce it exactly like they (and we) pronounce “horse.” So, while British speakers pronounce it “hos” (with a long “o” sound) Americans pronounce it “hoRs” (also with a long “o” sound but with the “r” rolled).

32. Honest/honor/honorable/hour. The first “h” in these words is silent, but many Nigerians sound out the “h.” So the words are pronounced “onist/onur/onureibl/aw-a(r).”

33. Hyperbole/epitome/litotes/simile. While Nigerians don't sound out the last “e” in these words, native-speakers do. So hyperbole is not pronounced “hai-pa-bol”; it is pronounced “hai-pa(r)-boli.” Epitome is not pronounced “epi-tom”; it is pronounced “ipi-tomi.” Litotes (the figure of speech) is not pronounced “lai-tots”; it is pronounced “lai-tow-tees.” Simile is not pronounced “si-mail”; it is pronounced “si-mu-lee.” But the rule doesn’t apply to “academe.” It is not pronounced “aka-demi”; it is pronounced “aka-deem.”

The reason these words’ pronunciations are atypical is that they have retained their original pronunciations from the languages through which they came into the English language. The last “e” in many Greek and Latin words is sometimes articulated and at other times silent. In French loanwords, as you saw from previous weeks' installments, the last letters of many words are silent, and English sometimes retains these original phonological features.  English sure embodies many mutually contradictory linguistic heritages. 

34. Issues. Most Yoruba English speakers pronounce this word as “izhus.” Other Nigerians pronounce it as “i-sus.”  But the word’s “proper” pronunciation is “i-shoos.”

35. Library/librarian/secretary/secretariat. Nigerians leave out the middle “r” sounds in these words. Library is often pronounced as “lai-bri” in Nigerian English. But native speakers pronounce it “lai-bre-ri.” The “r” is usually articulated. It is worth noting, though, that “lai-bri” is a legitimate variant in British pronunciation; it is not in American pronunciation. What of librarian, which Nigerians pronounce like “lai-be-rian”? Well, both British and American pronunciations articulate the middle “r” to have something like “lai-breh-rian.” 

Similarly, unlike Nigerian English pronunciation that elides the middle “r” in secretary and secretariat, British and American pronunciations sound it out. Instead of “se-ke-tri,” British speakers say “se-kri-tri” and Americans say something like “se-kri-tari” (the last “a” is soft). This also applies to secretariat. While Nigerians pronounce it “se-ke-tey-riat” native speakers pronounce it something like “se-kri-tey-riat” with subtle differences in how the vowels are articulated, which I am not interested in exploring here.

36. Liaison/liaise. Nigerians pronounce this word like “lai-ason.” We also pronounce liaise like “lai-as.” But British speakers pronounce liaison like “li-ey-zn” and Americans pronounce it like “li-ey-zon.” Both British and American English speakers pronounce liaise as “li-eyz.”

37. Listen/fasten/hasten. The “t” sound in these words is silent in native-speaker pronunciations. Listen is pronounced something like “lisin,” not “listin” as Nigerians pronounce it. Fasten is “fasin.” The elision of the “t” sound also occurs in the word’s other derivatives such as fastener (“fasna”), fastening (“fasnin”), refasten (“rifasin”), unfasten (“on-fasin”), etc. And hasten is pronounced “heisin.”

38. Machete/ matchet. Nigerian English speakers pronounce these words alike, that is, “ma-chet.” But machete, which is the more modern form of the two words, is “properly” pronounced “ma-she-ti.” Machet, the older word, is pronounced “ma-chit.”

39. Plagiarism/plagiarize/plagiarist. Many Nigerians pronounce the first “a” in these words like the “a” sound in “attack” to have something like “pla-gia-ri-zm,” “pla-gia-raiz,” and “pla-gia-rist,” but in all native-speaker pronunciations, the first “a” after “l” sounds like the “a” in ape. So it’s “pley-gia-ri-zm,” “pley-gia-raiz,” and “pley-gia-rist.” In other words, the first “pla” in the words sounds exactly like the word play. 

40. Plumber. The “b” in the word is silent in native-speaker pronunciations unlike in Nigerian pronunciation where it is usually articulated. Instead of “plom-ba” native-speakers say “ploma” with a soft “a” sound at the end. The “b” is also silent in these derivatives: plumb (“plom”), plumbing (“plomin”), plumbable (“plomeibl”).

41. Poignant. Although this is not a usual word in Nigerian conversational English, the few Nigerians that I’ve heard pronounce this word often sound out the “g” in it. In native-speaker pronunciations, however, the “g” is silent. It is not “poi-gnant”; it is “poyn-yont.”

42. Pivotal. Nigerians pronounce this word as “pai-vo-tal.” That’s the pronunciation I grew up hearing from my elementary school teachers who attended “pivotal teacher training colleges,” a sort of stopgap teacher certification for secondary school leavers who desired a career in elementary school teaching. It wasn’t until much later in life that I discovered that the word is pronounced “pi-vo-tl” in the dominant varieties of English pronunciation.

43. Ritual. This word is often pronounced “ri-twal” in Nigerian English. But native speakers pronounce it like “ri-choo-al.”

44. Statute. This word sounds like “sta-choot” in native-speaker pronunciations, but many Nigerians pronounce it like “sta-tiut.” 

45. Stipend. It is pronounced “stai-pend” by native speakers. Many, certainly not all, Nigerians pronounce it “sti-pend.”

46. Sword. The “w” in sword is silent in native-speaker pronunciations. It is pronounced “sod” in British English and “soRd” in American English. Nigerians sound out the “w.” Interestingly, the “w” in sward, which is often confused with sword in written English, is articulated. It is pronounced “swo(r)d.”

47. Towel. Many Nigerians pronounce this word like “to-wel.” Native English speakers pronounce it something like “taw-ul”

48. Tortoise. Nigerians pronounce this word like “to-tois.” I met a Nigerian woman in Louisiana in 2005 who had great difficulty making her American friends understand what she meant by “to-tois.” They were by a swamp in the middle of a campus and she was telling them something about tortoises, but they had no clue what she was talking about. She was frustrated. It was because, first, Americans are more familiar with “turtle” than “tortoise” and, second, they pronounce the word like “toRtis.” The last “o” in the word is kind of silent in all native-speaker pronunciations.

49. Verbatim. Almost every Nigerian I have met has pronounced this word like “va-ba-tim.” But it is pronounced “va(r)-bey-tim” in native-speaking pronunciations.

50. Wednesday. Nigerians pronounce this word “wed-nes-dey.” But in all socially favored native-speaker pronunciations the “d” is silent. So it’s “wenz-dey” or “wenz-dee.”

I will conclude this series next week with bonus words and other great suggestions I received from readers.

Related Articles:

1. A Comparison of Nigerian, American and British English
2. Why is "Sentiment" Such a Bad Word in Nigeria?
3. Ambassador Aminchi's Impossible Grammatical Logic
4. 10 Most Annoying Nigerian Media English Expressions
5. Sambawa and "Peasant Attitude to Governance"
6. Adverbial and Adjectival Abuse in Nigerian English
7. In Defense of "Flashing" and Other Nigerianisms
8. Weird Words We're Wedded to in Nigerian English
9. American English or British English?
10. Hypercorrection in Nigerian English
11. Nigerianisms, Americanisms, Briticisms and Communication Breakdown
12. Top 10 Irritating Errors in American English
13. Nigerian Editors Killing Macebuh Twice with Bad Grammar
14. On "Metaphors" and "Puns" in Nigerian English
15. Common Errors of Pluralization in Nigerian English
16. Q & A About Common Grammatical Problems
17. Semantic Change and the Politics of English Pronunciation
55. The Arabic Origins of Common Yoruba Words
56. Idioms, Mistranslation, and Abati's Double Standards 
57. Native English Speakers' Struggles with Grammar 
58. Q and A on Nigerian English and Usage Rules
59. Of Yoruba, Arabic, and Origins of Nigerian Languages
60. Language Families in Nigeria
61. Are There Native English Speakers in Nigeria? 
62. The English Nigerian Children Speak (I)
63. The English Nigerian Children Speak (II)
64. Reader Comments and My Responses to "The English Nigerian Children Speak" 
65. Q and A on American English Grammar and General Usage
66. Q and A on Prepositions and Nigerian Media English 
67. Americanisms Popularized by American Presidential Politics (I) 
67. Americanisms Popularized by American Presidential Politics (II)
68. Top 10 Peculiar Salutations in Nigerian English (I)
69. Top 10 Peculiar Salutations in Nigerian English (II)
70. Q and A on English Salutation, Punctuation and Other Usage Problems
71. More Q and A on a Variety of Grammar Usage Issues 
72. Top 10 Outdated and/or Made-up Words in Nigerian English 
73. Q and A on Outdated Nigerian English Words and Expressions  
74. 20 Obsolete English Words that Should Make a Comeback
75. Q and A About Jargon and Confusing Expressions
76. President Goodluck Jonathan's Grammatical Boo-boos
77. How Political Elite Influence English Grammar and Vocabulary 
78. Use and Misuse of "Penultimate" in Nigerian and Native English 
79. Top 50 Words Nigerians Commonly Mispronounce  I
80. Top 50 Words Nigerians Commonly Mispronounce II 



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