Saturday, June 23, 2012

Re: Issues in Sanusi Lamido Sanusi’s Plagiarism Allegations

My last week’s write-up with the above title elicited many thoughtful responses from my readers. Unfortunately, I can only publish a few of them. I hope you find them as interesting as I did.

Truth be told, plagiarism is pervasive in our educational system. Many students and even teachers don't even know that it's wrong. From lecture notes to journal articles to books, we copy other people's work verbatim without attribution and inserting quotation marks. Recently somebody told me plagiarism means "copying more than five sentences from another person’s work". Anything less is no plagiarism! Lecturers not only condone the act, they encourage it by turning a blind eye to obvious cases of plagiarism.

The surest way of showing you understand a material is not to regurgitate it in an exam and score an A, but to present it in your own words. No new knowledge can be meaningfully produced if we continue to plagiarize. Merit will be hampered and mediocrity will be rewarded with promotions and undeserved recognition. The campaign against plagiarism should start from the lower levels of the educational system so that students can be adequately prepared to face the challenges of academic writing before they enter tertiary institutions. Those researchers at CBN had probably plagiarized in their undergraduate theses, and thought they could continue in the knowledge that they would not be found out.

If Sanusi's case brings the issue to limelight, it will be worth the litigation, whatever the motives of Dike might be. Thanks for a brilliant piece. Great lessons abound in the mistakes of great people like Sainna Sanusi!
Abdulrahaman Muhammad, University of Maiduguri

Quite a courageous piece there. Kudos to Trust for publishing it. I did a piece with similar positions but the media machinery of the CBN made sure it didn’t see the light of day. Sanusi has been a writer and polemicist, a fact many do not know, and he comes loaded with the writer’s temperament. That fellow-feeling may be responsible for why some of us have stuck with him in his previous storms. But his latest issue with plagiarism is one that is bound to separate him from his die-hard fans. 

The metaphor which aptly captures this is that of the fish which swam the Seven Seas only to be overwhelmed by the old woman’s pot of soup. The pot of plagiarism may be quite small but it has been the Waterloo of many who tried to swim past it. 

The press statement from CBN’s spokesman, Ugochukwu Okoroafor, on the
matter beggars logic and does Sanusi’s deep intellect no credit. I have read a lot of dodgy press statements in defence of public officers’ actions but none in recent memory has been this disingenuous. It is akin to being accused of stealing a pen and the accused coming out to swear on top of his voice in the marketplace: “I didn’t do it, wallahi. It’s my hand that did!” On-lookers will begin to wonder whether the man’s “head is correct.”
Mike Ekunno, former Senior Speechwriter to the last Minister of Information and Communications and member of Quintilian - Speechwriters Group.

 I was sorely disappointed when I heard of the incident. Plagiarism is a very serious crime and giving Sanusi's track record of academic prowess it has spoken unwell of him. A prolific writer like Sanusi who wrote extensively before should know better the gravity of plagiarism.
Muktar G.Maigamo

Description: Anonymous
This particular article on Sanusi Lamido is objective and constructive, unlike the others you wrote pertaining him. Very interesting read.
 Mubarak Abdullahi 

I have had the privilege of reading Sanusi Lamido Sanusi's (SLS) writings. I had also heard him deliver lectures. I heard him engage in debates and arguments. I also agree mostly with your arguments and conclusions. But, unlike you, I would want SLS to initiate an out-of-court settlement on this matter by apologising to Prof. Dike, V.E. and withdrawing the continued publication of the offensive material. This action would show him as sincere and having the integrity to accept responsibility, a quality which is sorely lacking among our boko-trained elites and leaders.
 Anonymous commenter on my blog

"Corruption is what is killing the country" is a phrase to which many intellectuals and market women alike can lay claims of originality. It is not clever, not funny and not wise. The supposed lines lifted are of such nature that many Africans, writing on Nigeria, would come to the same arrangement of words. Plagiarism is defined in dictionaries as the "wrongful appropriation," "close imitation," or "purloining and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions," and the representation of them as one's own original work. This does not seem to be one of them. The dignified professor should be flattered, and not seek the Nigerian road to the fast buck.
Anonymous commenter on my blog

Once again, I'm here laughing so hard, I almost fell off my chair. You managed to inflict a severe dent to those passages of mediocrity that may possibly be the cause of legal woes for such an intellectual powerhouse, Mallam Sanusi.

Like you, I concur completely, there's no excuse for such an oversight from the CEO. He must've passed the buck to an inept assistant at his own peril. And with the benefit of hindsight, in politicking, history is mystery.

Fair enough, the purported author, Mr V E Dike has a legitimate claim. But what a ruckus and overzealous schmaltziness over something which a better writer could have used to his advantage in a positive way! I smell a bit of predatory opportunism, with a view to gaining publicity and hitting pay dirt.

However, this speaks to my thorough aversion for the malaise of corporatese and the perils of bureaucracy. If Sanusi had been a manager in a small firm, he may have sorted out this little snag on a one-to-one basis with the said author. But the CBN had to wade in, trying to muschle their way out with PR stunts on the advice of a vulpine legal team ~ madness ensues.

But I'm applauding your exceptional brilliance and class once more.
Samira Edi, London.

Farooq! Forever bold. I agree with you that Sanusi should pay. But nobody pays for wrongdoings in Nigeria, not Ngozi, not Diezani, not Barth Nnaji, not Sanusi. We behave in our country in ways we dare not outside our country.
Odoh Diego Okenyodo, Abuja

Related Article:

Friday, June 15, 2012

Issues in Sanusi Lamido Sanusi’s plagiarism allegation

By Farooq A. Kperogi

This is probably an inopportune moment to resurrect the uncomfortable and troubling plagiarizing charges against Central Bank of Nigeria governor Malam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi. He must still be luxuriating in the afterglow of his new traditional title from the Emir of Kano. But the discomfort of our oppressors should not deter us from discussing their transgressions.

A certain Mr. Victor E. Dike, a US-based high school teacher who is also an adjunct (i.e., part-time) lecturer at a little-known, non-traditional university called the National University in Sacramento, California, sued Sanusi some weeks back over claims that the CBN governor plagiarized his works in two public speeches.

According to court documents, in a November 26, 2010 convocation speech at the Igbinedion University in Edo State titled “Growth Prospects for the Nigerian Economy,” Sanusi lifted several passages word for word from Dike’s published articles in violation of the established protocols of citation.

Again, Dike alleged, Sanusi’s December 10 convocation lecture at the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University titled “Global Financial Meltdown and Reforms in the Nigerian Banking Sector” stole several paragraphs from another published paper of Dike’s. Sanusi has not denied the accuracy of these charges.

Dike said he called Sanusi’s attention to this serial rape of his intellectual property but that Sanusi responded by saying he had cited a “Victor E.D” in the said public lectures. Sanusi never apologized for his intellectual and literary theft.

Plagiarism is no light matter. Many important personalities in the world have been brought down by it. US Vice President Joe Biden’s run for the presidency of the United States came to a screeching halt in 1988 when he was found guilty of plagiarizing British politician Neil Kinnock during a stump speech. Just last April, Hungarian president Pal Schmitt resigned as president of his country over plagiarism allegations.

This may be purely coincidental, but I am particularly troubled that Sanusi’s plagiarized speeches were delivered to university audiences where intellectual honesty is central to the integrity of knowledge production, where students and lecturers can lose their careers if they are found guilty of plagiarism. This is what makes it even more scandalous for me.

To be sure, anybody who is familiar with Sanusi’s writings would know that he wasn’t personally responsible for the plagiarism. I have followed his public writings since 1998. Sanusi is easily one of the finest and most delicate users of the English language that I know. His prose is irresistibly delightful, riveting, and seductive. A reviewer of Ben Okri’s Famished Road wrote that “Okri is incapable of writing a boring sentence.” I will paraphrase the reviewer and say Sanusi is incapable of writing bland, uninspired prose.

 The passages Dike accused Sanusi of having plagiarized are so banal, so pedestrian, so ordinary that I am shocked that Sanusi, with all his sensitivity to refined prose, would allow such language in his speech. Here is a sample of the passages Sanusi plagiarized: “the challenges facing the economy is in-effective institutions and dilapidated  infrastructure (bad roads, erratic power supply, limited access to potable water and basic healthcare, and in-effective regulatory agencies, etc). The plethora of reforms and policies are in-effective due to institutional failure (Hoff, 2003)".

The prose is not only ungainly and unglamorous; it is also in need of some rhetorical and compositional maturity. If Sanusi wanted to plagiarize—and I doubt he would ever personally plagiarize given his pride and intellectual depth—Dike’s colorless prose would be an unlikely candidate. It is obvious that the speech was written for Sanusi by some intellectually slothful CBN employee.

So I wasn’t surprised by the CBN’s initial response to the allegations. CBN’s director of corporate communications, Ugochukwu A. Okoroafor, said “ Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi did not write the said paper,” pointing out that  “Governors of the Central Bank of Nigeria, just like Chief Executive Officers of similar institutions in Nigeria and abroad, deliver papers, not in their personal capacities, but on behalf of the institutions for which they are chief spokespersons. In the case of the CBN, such papers, even though presented by the Governor, represent our collective views and are prepared by professional researchers in the relevant departments of the Bank.”

I don’t for a moment doubt the factual accuracy of this defense, but it’s a poor, weak defense nonetheless. First, the statement does not acknowledge that Sanusi’s speeches indeed barefacedly plagiarized someone’s published works, but goes ahead nevertheless to admit that the speeches weren’t written by Sanusi. That defense is weak because if the speeches were brilliant and quotable, Sanusi would have taken the credit. We would never have been told that he didn't write them. And that’s how it should be.

When people quote memorable speeches from presidents, CEOs, politicians, etc. they give the credit not to speech writers (who in any case are often invisible) but to the people who deliver the speeches. The late US President John F. Kennedy’s famous inaugural speech in which he invited the American people to “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country” was written by his speech writer Ted Sorensen. But no one, except insiders, gave the credit to Sorensen.

Spiro Agnew, America’s vice president from 1969 to 1973, was noted for his beautifully alliterative turns of phrase. For instance, he famously condemned his political enemies as “nattering nabobs of negativity,” as “pusillanimous pussyfooters,” and as “hopeless, hysterical hypochondriacs of history.” But he never personally wrote any of these remarkable phrases. They were written for him by William Safire, Agnew’s speech writer who later wrote a famous grammar column in the New York Times called “On Language” until his death in 2009.

One of Obama’s most memorable speeches after he lost a presidential primary contest to Hillary Clinton was this: “For when we have faced down impossible odds, when we've been told we're not ready or that we shouldn't try or that we can't, generations of Americans have responded with a simple creed that sums up the spirit of a people: Yes, we can....” Obama got the credit for the speech, but it was singlehandedly written for him by his then 29-year-old (now 31-year-old) speech writer Jon Favreau.

When Bill Clinton was misled into calling our Philip Emeagwali the “Bill Gates of Africa” by his speech writers who fell for Emeagwali’s carefully executed fraud, he also took the blame for it. He didn’t go about blaming his speech writers.

So it is indefensible for the CBN to say that because Sanusi didn’t personally plagiarize Dike he isn’t culpable of any ethical or legal infraction. If he takes the glory of his speeches, he should be prepared to take the blame for them as well.

Another weakness of the CBN’s defense is the claim that they cited one “Victor E.D” in Sanusi’s speeches. First, the author’s last name is “Dike,” not Victor. A proper citation would be “Dike, V.E.” Improperly citing the author of an article or a book constitutes plagiarism. But what is worse is that Sanusi’s communication managers apparently think that it is acceptable to steal an author’s words and pass them off as yours so long as you acknowledge the author whose words you have stolen. That’s wrong. Using someone’s words directly without inserting quotation marks around those words is culpable intellectual and literary theft even if you acknowledge the name of the author whose words you’re using.

I am disappointed that given Sanusi’s familiarity with the culture of academic citation he would allow the kind of incompetent defense issued by his corporate communications director to be released to the public media.
I hope Sanusi pays a huge reputational and financial price for this infraction if only to serve as a warning to the hordes of intellectual thieves who prowl the Internet to steal people’s thoughts and words.

Saturday, June 9, 2012

Remembering Zainab Kperogi Two Years After

By Moses E. Ochonu

This is the second year anniversary of the passing of Zainab Kperogi, the wife of my friend, Dr. Farooq Kperogi. Although her husband and I talked almost every other day in the few years before her passing, I didn’t interact with Zainab as frequently as I would have loved. Oceanic distance separated us, as it did her and her husband —and, before he relocated to the US, Farooq and I. The infrequency of our direct interaction is a regret I have whenever I think of her.

We communicated frequently, of course, vicariously through her husband, but two years after her passing my wife and I realize how we miss her calmly delivered philosophical insights into life and the quotidian aspirations of marriage and family. We regret not having known her better, not having done more to reach across the oceanic divide, in this age of trans-oceanic communicative ease, to commune more with her.

The regret is partly selfish because as I confront the inevitable juggling acts of family, fatherhood, and life, I realize that I could use more of Zainab’s boundless sense of optimism, her inexplicable instinct to look on the good side and focus on possibilities instead of obstacles. I wish that I had tapped more into her infectiously sunny outlook on life, her incurable refusal to allow today’s challenges deter her from envisioning a rosier tomorrow.

I got to know Zainab on a visit to Farooq in the newsroom of Weekly Trust, then based in Kaduna. My recollection might embarrass Farooq, but it is necessary for me to retell it here as a way of underlining the effortless warmth that Zainab radiated. I recall that Zainab’s reaction to me, a friend of her then fiance, was more enthusiastic than Farooq’s introduction of her to me. Which is not to say that Farooq’s introduction was tepid; it was effusive enough to tell me that this was no ordinary relationship. Yet the chatty warmth with which Zainab welcomed me that day put Farooq’s introduction to shame. Farooq had not told me about Zainab and she obviously had not heard about me, but she proceeded to interact with me with a disarming familiarity. It was as though she had known me for years.  I was even more impressed later when Farooq told me that they were in the middle of a lovers’ quarrel and were essentially taking a break when I visited him. This was Zainab. She could not help being nice, being friendly, being welcoming, and she would neither let a small romantic quarrel get in the way of her niceness nor allow her transient grievance against her fiancĂ© to cloud her interactions with his friend.

As I examined their relationship that day and the awkward newsroom dynamic that overlaid it, I knew that this was a relationship destined for marriage, with all its blessings — children, noise, growth, petty romantic quarrels, and sweet make-ups. I knew it there and then try as Farooq did to project the image of a macho, unemotional suitor. More significantly, as I left the newsroom that day, I knew that, if it was up to me, this was the woman that I wanted my friend to be with, for I thought to myself: a woman as naturally warm and sociable as Zainab would be the perfect antidote to Farooq’s sporadic social awkwardness. Plus, she obviously loved him very much. Farooq would later tell me that they both knew from the moment they met that they would be married because they felt that where-have-you-been-all-my-life connection.

It made me happy when in a matter of months after that encounter, Farooq told me the news I expected. He had married Zainab. Then came the birth of their daughter. It was a rapid unfolding of what I had foreseen for them, and it made me happy.

Several years passed before I saw Zainab again. In 2007 when she traveled to the US, she, Farooq, and their daughter visited us in Nashville. It was a memorable visit. Even though we were the host, Zainab’s altruism and selflessness reversed the roles. She mothered our daughter and hers; she counseled; she told jokes, some on Farooq, some on herself; she entertained and (re)educated us on many subjects. Of course, she shopped with my wife and they did women things. We made family outings together. By the end of the visit, it felt like Zainab was our host and we her visitors! She had become family! And it was all effortless on her part; it was just Zainab being Zainab.

After the visit she kept in touch with my wife and I on the phone, but as we settled into our routines again, the frequency of the calls we made to her decreased and postponements of conversations became regular. We went back to the familiar but now regretted routine of communicating with her indirectly by inquiring about her from Farooq.

I will conclude this tribute by telling the story of my third in-person encounter with Zainab in 2009. She had met me at the airport in Abuja to get the materials — a bagful — that her husband sent through me. My wife had bought a small present for their daughter but I had forgotten to give it to her at the airport. I subsequently arranged to meet her at her office in the Media Trust compound in Utako district of Abuja. After missing my way several times, I located the expansive premises of her employer.

All the small pleasantries over, Zainab, taking me completely unawares, asked if I owned a home or a plot of land in Abuja. I said I did not. She asked half-jokingly if it didn’t bother me that I, a US-based Professor, was staying in a hotel on a visit to the capital of my own country. I said it did and that I had thought of the awkwardness of the situation but had no means of addressing it. She then said that she knew that I would want to bring my wife and daughter home on vacations, and wouldn’t it be great to have a small house to spend time while in Nigeria? All of these were things that I had thought about and so I concurred with every statement or question she posed, wondering where she was going with the inquiries. With the seriousness of an interrogator, she asked why I hadn’t at least purchased a plot of land in one of the satellite towns, why I had not begun doing something about building a home in the FCT. I proceeded to give the familiar — and legitimate — excuses.  Abuja homes and plots of land were too expensive. I couldn’t afford anything anywhere in Abuja on my salary. It would take me decades to save enough to buy a plot and decades more to build a modest home on it, so why bother?  I had many dependants.

She watched me studiously as I reeled out my list of reasons and then, with the patient pedagogical sensitivity of a seasoned teacher, she demonstrated to me that I could do it if I tried. She disabused me of the myths of land ownership in Abuja, copiously drawing on examples of colleagues and friends who were on smaller incomes than mine and had managed to acquire land for their future homes in the FCT. She then proceeded to show me in both arithmetic and anecdotal terms how, with a little more financial discipline and determination, I could buy a plot of land in one of the Abuja satellite towns and start to develop it at a pace allowed by my finances. She spiced up her persuasive presentation by making the emotional case that this would be great for my family’s comfort and enable us take more vacations to Nigeria, which would help our children appreciate their roots more. With this patriotic and emotional pitch I was sold!

She convinced me. I came away believing that this was indeed possible, buoyed by Zainab’s remarkably expansive view of what was achievable even in Nigeria’s notoriously out-of-reach real estate market. Her optimism was intoxicating. I was fired up, and began to dream of land ownership in the FCT, of family vacations in the future in our own home in Abuja. This encounter is one of the most profound and transformative ones I have ever had. It changed my way of thinking, my view of possibilities, and moderated my acquired views on the worth and challenges of investing in Nigeria.

The encounter also told me something powerful about Zainab. I was only her husband’s friend, not a blood relative. She had actually only interacted with me sparingly before then. She did not have to give me such a life transforming motivational “lecture”; she did not have to give me invaluable informational details on how to acquire land in one of Abuja’s suburbs. Yet here she was looking out for my and my family’s interest and doing so with focus, commitment, and passionate altruism. This gesture gave me a memorable glimpse into the naturalness of Zainab’s desire to help others. This was Zainab, ever so willing and ready to encourage others to live up to their potential, to do what they considered impossible, and ever so determined to see people around her prosper and thrive.

I will never forget this encounter with Zainab, and I told Farooq so. We all have our own stories that illustrate the character and spirit that Zainab exuded, and her giving, nurturing personality. This is mine. The home ownership dream that Zainab planted in me is incubating, thanks to her dogged refusal to allow me neglect what she knew would improve the quality of my life. As I pursue this goal, no matter how long it may take, I will always remember that she generously put the idea in me. And when the dream materializes I will owe it to Zainab. It will be, for me, a visible, physical reminder of her legacy of selflessness, compassion, and optimism.

May God sustain her legacy and comfort her family.

Ochonu is an Associate Professor of History at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA 

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Zainab: One Year After, It Still Feels Like a Dream 

Thursday, June 7, 2012

Re: Idioms, Mistranslation, and Abati’s Double Standards

I am going to break tradition this week and feature responses to my last week’s column. I normally don’t do that for my grammar column. But I hope you enjoy the insights shared by my readers in the responses below.

An interesting piece. The description of the translation of “out of sight, out of mind” into “invisible, insane” was priceless. :) Translation is, indeed a complicated task.
R. Kahendi

Prof., let me add one idiom: Let the sleeping dog lie. In Hausa it translates as Abar kaza cikin gashinta. Would someone interpret the English version as “Abar kare yayi barci” and the Hausa one as “let’s leave the chicken in its feather?” Abati's action is deliberate.
Ibrahim Rufai Buhari

A Facebook friend has advised that since Abati chose to translate Buhari’s idiom directly, he should let the translation be 100 percent, that is, “come 2015 election if PDP rigs (which, of course, they will), then Buhari has ordered that everyone should run into the bush, catch and kill dogs and baboons”!
Umar Ibrahim Tafida

My concern is that Buhari's remarks are still a bit problematic even if correctly interpreted. Let's assume that "kare jini biri jini" just means "fierce competition". From his remarks, I can gather two things: 1. Whatever he was predicting will happen AFTER the 2015 election and not before it 2. He is promising a NEW kind of reaction to PDP's rigging different from the way his party has reacted before.

Now, considering these two points, how would you apply the expression "fierce competition" to the 2015 post-election period? Was he referring to a fierce legal battle or fierce post-election press conferences? Or is it fierce rallies and demonstrations? It is unlikely that he was referring to a fierce legal battle because his party engaged in that three times before with no positive outcome. It is also unlikely that he was referring to fierce press conferences to reject the rigged result because his party has done that one too previously. The last one, i.e., fierce protest rallies and demonstrations is the likely one because his party has not done that before officially.

 If my assumption is correct, here is the problem: while peaceful demonstrations and protest rallies are legitimate and legal, what form would CPC post-election protest rallies take in the imagination of ordinary uneducated supporters if their leader says they are going to be "fierce"? In the leader's mind, a fierce rally may just mean a well-attended, noisy and persistent one; to the uneducated supporter, it could mean a rally where participants bear clubs and machetes. This is where the problem lies.
Dr. Bello Raji

Once again, you captured the moment brilliantly with your latest article. The true value of this topic is that it is applicable to a wide spectrum of situations. A politician of Buhari's caliber, however, should understand the mindset of his opponents well enough not to couch his messages in nuanced slang and idioms that give ammunition to his detractors to boomerang them back at him.

Take Politics: With the American presidential election looming, this is just timely. When President Obama says he is in favour of "women having a choice over their wombs," his GOP enemies spin off that the president "declares war on women." When he says he supports "Gay marriages" the blazing headlines by his opponents translate to "Obama declares war on heterosexual marriages."

What I'll like to point out is that in political settings language misinterpretation becomes a tool for propaganda and the dissemination of misinformation. This is largely owed to intellectual dishonesty, paralysing stupidity or political opponents with the unfortunate attributes of being very thick.

Depending on the mindset of the audience they're trying to convince with mangled information (hostile or friendly) it will suit a disingenuous politician to spin, misquote, misinterpret, mistranslate and twist an original speaker's words to suit their multifarious shades of dishonesty.

Take Friends: Again I've seen this sort of deliberate artifice even in ordinary people. A number of friends will read the same article, listen to the same piece of news item and chose to give it a spin that is comestible to the mental palates of people they want to suck up to, as long as the information doesn't chime with the the people they want to please.

It all comes down to integrity not even perception, isn't it? It is gross, disingenuous and egregious falsity. But ambiguous messages leave room for opponents to do the business. It provokes the exact negative sentiment they want their listener to feel. We cannot always trust even the most educated people to understand our own quirks and slang...or give it the benefit of the doubt. We face a triple threat: Dishonesty, ignorance and misunderstanding.

By the way, I know many more people who read your columns, and I've read your direct quotes from them, without the honesty to cite you as their source. Just one point.
Samira Edi

Farooq, you just hit the nail on the head! And we were made to understand that Abati graduated with a First Class degree. Aside the academic aspect, I have always faulted Mr. Abati's mental strength, i.e., his inappropriate application of "wisdom" where it matters. Mr. Ima Niboro was not like that. We could see the way Niboro handled or managed issues relating to the Late Yar-Adua's health at a time cabinet members were misbehaving and our National Assembly members in a fix as to what to do.

In the US, presidential speech writers or spokespersons do their research work very well so that they do not have to embarrass their country or the Commander-in-Chief. But here, Abati seems to do everything in a rush without proper research or consultation. The end result is the over-heating of our polity as we are currently witnessing. And I tell you, Mr. Reuben Abati is embarrassing me.
Christopher Godwin Akaba

Fact remains that majority of Nigerians know that Buhari is hated only by the corrupt. And Insha Allah, we Nigerians will mobilise and get rid of all of them that are destroying our great Nation. Ask yourself why wouldn't these corrupt elements misconstrue Buhari? Of course they will use any form of distractions to cover their tracks. And their cyber dogs will continue to defend them at the expense of the suffering masses. Please don't blame the cyber dogs, they are used to eating crumbs like their Jonathan who has no shoe but suddenly forgets the masses that gave him plenty of shoes.
Marian Iyabode Awolowo

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